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Documentation

When you use direct quotations, facts and figures, or ideas you find in work done by others, you are obliged to tell your readers where you found this material in an appropriate form.  Here is a list of the standard documentation styles most frequently required for papers at Lewis & Clark, along with an example of the way the writer signals that he or she is using a source in the body of his or her paper (in-text citation):

 MLA (Modern Language Association)

 Such buildings were first constructed in 1834 (Atkinson 34).

 Chicago Notes & Bibliography*

 Such buildings were first constructed in 1834.1

 Chicago Author-Date*

 Such buildings were first constructed in 1834 (Atkinson 2010).

 APA (American Psychological Association)

 Such buildings were first constructed in 1834 (Atkinson 2010).

 Anthropology (American Anthropological Association)

 Such buildings were first constructed to 1834 (Atkinson 2010: 34).

 

* NOTE ABOUT CHICAGO

 You will see above that The Chicago Manual of Style presents two different styles or ways of citing sources.  The notes and bibliography form is generally used in the humanities (literature, philosophy, history), while the social and life sciences prefer the author-date system.  When using the Manual, be aware that

N refers to the form for a note

B refers to the form for an entry in a bibliography

T refers to an in-text citation in the author-date system

R refers to the form to use in the reference list (the scientific equivalent of the bibliography in the author-date system)

Link me to the Quick Guide for the Chicago style

Link me to the online copy of the complete Chicago manual.

 

The very best way to know which style is appropriate
for a paper you are writing is to ask your instructor.

 

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